中国主要湿地水鸟

 
目录
  • 天鹅
  • 雁和鸭
  • 秧鸡
  • 鸻和鹬
  • 翠鸟
  •   湿地鸟类是湿地野生动物中最具代表性的类群,是湿地生态系统的重要组成部分,灵敏和深刻地反映着湿地环境的变迁。

      据统计,目前我国有湿地水鸟12目32科271种,其中属国家重点保护的水鸟有10目18科56种,属国家保护的有益或者有重要经济、科学研究价值的水鸟有10目25科195种。按居留型可分为夏候鸟、冬候鸟、留鸟和旅鸟4类,其中大部分是候鸟和旅鸟。在亚洲57种濒危鸟类中,中国湿地内就有31种,占54%;全世界鹤类有15种,中国有记录的就有9种,占60%;全世界雁鸭类有166种,中国湿地就有50种,占30%。

      我国湿地水鸟的分布是与各地的气候、水文、植被等自然地理特点相适应的。北方处于寒温带和温带,种类以夏候鸟和旅鸟占优势;南方处于亚热带和热带,种类以冬候鸟和留鸟占优势。很多水鸟都是在北方繁殖,到南方越冬。

    中国主要水鸟名录

    序号 中文名 学名 英文名
    潜鸟目 GAVIIFORMES
    潜鸟科 Gaviidae (4)
    1 红喉潜鸟 Gavia stellata Red-throated Diver
    2 太平洋潜鸟 Gavia pacifica Pacific Diver
    3 黑喉潜鸟 Gavia arctica Black-throated Diver
    4 白嘴潜鸟 Gavia adamsii White-billed Diver
    䴙䴘目 PODICIPEDIFORMES
    䴙䴘科 Podicipedidae (5)
    5 小䴙䴘 Tachybaptus ruficollis Little Grebe
    6 角䴙䴘 Podiceps auritus Horned Grebe
    7 黑颈䴙䴘 Podiceps nigricollis Black-necked Grebe
    8 凤头䴙䴘 Podiceps cristatus Great CrestedGrebe
    9 赤颈䴙䴘 Podiceps grisegena Red-necked Grebe
    鹱形目 PROCELLARIIFORMES
    信天翁科 Diomedeidae(2)
    10 短尾信天翁 Diomedea albatrus Short-tailedAlbatross
    11 黑脚信天翁 Diomedea nigripes Black-footed Albatross
    鹱科 Procellariidae(8)
    12 暴风鹱 Fulmarus glacialis Pacific Fulmar
    13 白额鹱 Puffinus leucomelas White-frontedShearwater
    14 曳尾鹱 Puffinus pacificus Wedge-tailed Shearwater
    15 灰鹱 Puffinus griseus Grey Shearwater
    16 短尾鹱 Puffinus tenuirostris Short-tailedShearwater
    17 钩嘴圆尾鹱 Pterodroma rostrata T ahiti Petrel
    18 点额圆尾鹱 Pterodroma hypoleuca Bonin Petrel
    19 纯褐鹱 Bulweria bulwerii Bulwer's Petrel
    海燕科 Hydrobatidae(2)
    20 白腰叉尾海燕 Oceanodroma leucorhoa Fork-tailed Storm Petrel
    21 黑叉尾海燕 Oceanodroma monorhis Swinhoe's Storm Petrel
    鹈形目 PELACANIFORMES
    鸏科 Phaethontidae(3)
    22 短尾鸏 Phaethon aethereus Short-tailed Tropic-bird
    23 红尾鸏 Phaethon rubricauda Red-tailed Tropic-bird
    24 白尾鸏 Phaethon lepturus Long-tailed Tropic-bird
    鹈鹕科 Pelecanidae (2)
    25 白鹈鹕 Pelecanus onocrotalus Eastern White Pelican
    26 斑嘴鹈鹕 Pelecanus philippensis Spot-billed Pelican
    鲣鸟科 Sulidae(2)
    27 红脚鲣鸟 Sula sula Red-footed Booby
    28 褐鲣鸟 Sula leucogaster Brown Booby
    鸬鹚科 Phalacrocoracidae (5)
    29 [普通]鸬鹚 Phalacrocorax carbo Common Cormorant
    30 斑头(绿)鸬鹚 Phalacrocorax capillatus Temminck's Cormorant
    31 海鸬鹚 Phalacrocorax pelagicus Sea Cormorant
    32 红脸鸬鹚 Phalacrocorax urile Red-faced Cormorant
    33 黑颈鸬鹚 Phalacrocorax niger Little Cormorant
    军舰鸟科 Fregatidae(3)
    34 小军舰鸟 Fregata minor Lesser Frigate Bird
    35 白腹军舰鸟 Fregata andrwsi Christmas Island Frigate Bird
    36 白斑军舰鸟 Fregata ariel Least Frigate Bird
    鹳形目 CICONIIFORMES
    鹭科 Ardeidae (21)
    37 苍鹭 Ardea cinerea Grey Heron
    38 草鹭 Ardea purpurea Purple Heron
    39 绿鹭 Butorides striatus Little Green Heron
    40 池鹭 Ardeola bacchus Chinese Pond Heron
    41 牛背鹭 Bubulcus ibis Cattle Egret
    42 白颈黑鹭 Egretta picata Pied Heron
    43 大白鹭 Egretta alba Large Egret
    44 白鹭 Egretta garzetta Little Egret
    45 黄嘴白鹭 Egretta eulophotes Chinese Egret
    46 岩鹭 Egretta sacra Reef Heron
    47 中白鹭 Egretta intermedia Intermediate Egret
    48 夜鹭 Nycticorax nycticorax Black-crowned Night Heron
    49 栗头虎斑鳽 Gorsachius goisagi Brown Night Heron
    50 海南虎斑鳽 Gorsachius magnificus Chinese Night Heron
    51 黑冠虎斑鳽 Gorsachius melanolophus Malay Night Heron
    52 小苇鳽 Ixobrychus minutus Little Bittern
    53 黄苇鳽 Ixobrychus sinensis Yellow Bittern
    54 紫背苇鳽 Ixobrychus eurhythmus Schrenck's Bittern
    55 栗苇鳽 Ixobrychus cinnamomeus Cinnamon Bittern
    56 黑鳽 Ixobrychus flavicollis Black Bittern
    57 大麻鳽 Botaurus stellaris Great Bittern
    鹳科 Ciconiidae (5)
    58 彩鹳 Mycteria leucocephalus Painted Stork
    59 白鹳 Ciconia ciconia White Stork
    60 东方白鹳 Ciconia boyciana Oriental White Stork
    61 黑鹳 Ciconia nigra Black Stork
    62 秃鹳 Leptoptilos javanicus Lesser Adjutant Stork
    鹮科 Threskiornithidae (6)
    63 [黑头]白鹮 Threskiornis melanocephalus White Ibis
    64 黑鹮 Pseudibis papillosa Black Ibis
    65 朱鹮 Nipponia nippon Crested Ibis
    66 彩鹮 Plegadis falcinella Glossy Ibis
    67 白琵鹭 Platalea leucorodia White Spoonbill
    68 黑脸琵鹭 Platalea minor Black-faced Spoonbill
    雁形目ANSERIFORMES
    鸭科 Anatidae (47)
    69 黑雁 Branta bernicla Brant Goose
    70 红胸黑雁 Branta ruficollis Red-breasted Goose
    71 鸿雁 Anser cygnoides Swan Goose
    72 豆雁 Anser fabalis Bean Goose
    73 白额雁 Anser albifrons White-fronted Goose
    74 小白额雁 Anser erythropus Lesser White-fronted Goose
    75 灰雁 Anser anser Greylag Goose
    76 斑头雁 Anser indicus Bar-headed Goose
    77 雪雁 Anser caerulescens Snow Goose
    78 大天鹅 Cygnus cygnus Whooper Swan
    79 小天鹅 Cygnus columbianus Whistling Swan
    80 疣鼻天鹅 Cygnus olor Mute Swan
    81 [栗]树鸭 Dendrocygna javanica Lesser Whistling Teal
    82 赤麻鸭 Tadorna ferruginea Ruddy Shelduck
    83 翘鼻麻鸭 Tadorna tadorna Common Shelduck
    84 针尾鸭 Anas acuta Pintail
    85 绿翅鸭 Anas crecca Common Teal
    86 花脸鸭 Anas formosa Baikal Teal
    87 罗纹鸭 Anas falcata Falcated Teal
    88 绿头鸭 Anas platyrhynchos Mallard
    89 斑嘴鸭 Anas poecilorhyncha Spotbill Duck
    90 赤膀鸭 Anas strepera Gadwall
    91 赤颈鸭 Anas penelope Wigeon
    92 白眉鸭 Anas querquedula Garganey
    93 琵嘴鸭 Anas clypeata Shoveller
    94 云石斑鸭 Marmaronetta angustirostris Marbled Teal
    95 赤嘴潜鸭 Netta rufina Red-crested Pochard
    96 帆背潜鸭 Aythya valisineria Canvasback
    97 红头潜鸭 Aythya ferina Common Pochard
    98 白眼潜鸭 Aythya nyroca White-eyed Pochard
    99 青头潜鸭 Aythya baeri Baer's Pochard
    100 凤头潜鸭 Aythya fuligula Tufted Duck
    101 斑背潜鸭 Aythya marila Scaup Duck
    102 鸳鸯 Aix galericulata Mandarin Duck
    103 棉凫 Nettapus coromandelianus Cotton Teal
    104 瘤鸭 Sarkidiornis melanotos Comb Duck
    105 小绒鸭 Polysticta stelleri Steller's Eider
    106 黑海番鸭 Melanitta nigra Black Scoter
    107 斑脸海番鸭 Melanitta fusca White-winged Scoter
    108 丑鸭 Histrionicus histrionicus Harlequin Duck
    109 长尾鸭 Clangula hyemalis Long-tailed Duck
    110 鹊鸭 Bucephala clangula Goldeneye
    111 白头硬尾鸭 Oxyura leucocephala White-headed Duck
    112 斑头秋沙鸭 Mergus albellus Smew
    113 中华秋沙鸭 Mergus squamatus Chinese Merganser
    114 红胸秋沙鸭 Mergus serrator Red-breastedMerganser
    115 普通秋沙鸭 Mergus merganser Goosander
    隼形目FALCONIFORMES
    鹰科Accipitridat(1)
    116 Pandion haliatus Osprey
    鹤形目GRUIFORMES
    鹤科Gruidae (9)
    117 灰鹤 Grus grus Common Crane
    118 黑颈鹤 Grus nigricollis Black-necked Crane
    119 白头鹤 Grus monacha Hooded Crane
    120 沙丘鹤 Grus canadensis Shandhill Crane
    121 丹顶鹤 Grus japonensis Red-crowned Crane
    122 白枕鹤 Grus vipio White-naped Crane
    123 白鹤 Grusleucogeranus Siberian White Crane
    124 赤颈鹤 Grus antigone Sarus Crane
    125 蓑羽鹤 Anthropoides virgo Demoiselle Crane
    秧鸡科Rallidae (19)
    126 普通秧鸡 Rallus aquaticus Water Rail
    127 蓝胸秧鸡 Rallus striatus Blue-breasted Banded Rail
    128 红腿斑秧鸡 Rallina fasciata Red-legged Crake
    129 白喉斑秧鸡 Rallina eurizonoides Banded Crake
    130 长脚秧鸡 Crex crex Corn Crake
    131 白眉秧鸡 Porzana cinerea Ashy Crake
    132 姬田鸡 Porzana parva Little Crake
    133 小田鸡 Porzana pusilla Baillon's Crake
    134 斑胸田鸡 Porzana porzana Spotted Crake
    135 红胸田鸡 Porzana fusca Ruddy Crake
    136 斑胁田鸡 Porzana paykullii Band-beilied Crake
    137 棕背田鸡 Porzana bicolor Rufous-backed Crake
    138 花田鸡 Porzana exquisita Swinhoe's Yellow Rail
    139 红脚苦恶鸟 Amaurornis akool Brown Crake
    140 白胸苦恶鸟 Amaurornis phoenicurus White-breasted WaterHen
    141 董鸡 Gallicrex cinerea Water Cock
    142 黑水鸡 Gallinula chloropus Moorhen
    143 紫水鸡 Porphyrio porphyrio Purple Moorhen
    144 白骨顶 Fulica atra Coot
    鸻形目 CHARADRIIFORMES
    雉鸻科 Jacanidae (2)
    145 铜翅水雉 Metapidius indicus Bronge-winged Jacana
    146 水雉 Hydrophasianus chirurgus Pheasant-tailed Jacana
    彩鹬科 Rostratulidae (1)
    147 彩鹬 Rostratula benghalensis Painted Snipe
    蛎鹬科 Haematopodidae (1)
    148 蛎鹬 Haematopus ostralegus Oystercatcher
    鸻科 Charadriidae (15)
    149 凤头麦鸡 Vanellus vanellus Lapwing
    150 灰头麦鸡 Vanellus cinereus Grey-headed Lapwing
    151 肉垂麦鸡 Vanellus indicus Red-wattledLapwing
    152 距翅麦鸡 Vanellus duvaucelii Spur-winged Lapwing
    153 灰斑鸻 Pluvialis squatarola Grey Plover
    154 金[斑]鸻 Pluvialis dominica Eastern Golden Plover
    155 剑鸻 Charadrius hiaticula Ringed Plover
    156 长嘴剑鸻 Charadrius placidus Long-billed Ringed Plover
    157 金眶鸻 Charadrius dubius Little Ringed Plover
    158 环颈鸻 Charadrius alexandrinus Kentish Plover
    159 蒙古沙鸻 Charadrius mongolus Mongolian Plover
    160 铁嘴沙鸻 Charadrius leschenaultii Large Sand Plover
    161 红胸鸻 Charadrius asiaticus Caspian Plover
    162 东方鸻 Charadrius veredus Eastern Sand Plover
    163 小嘴鸻 Eudromias morinellus Dotterel
    鹬科 Scolopacidae (48)
    164 小杓鹬 Numenius minutus Little Whimbrel
    165 中杓鹬 Numenius phaeopus Whimbrel  
    166 白腰杓鹬 Numenius arquata Curlew
    167 红腰杓鹬 Numenius madagascariensis Red-rumped Curlew
    168 黑尾塍鹬 Limosa limosa Black-tailed Godwit
    169 斑尾塍鹬 Limosa lapponica Bar-tailed Godwit
    170 红脚鹤鹬 Tringa erythropus Spotted Redshank
    171 红脚鹬 Tringa totanus Redshank
    172 泽鹬 Tringa stagnatilis Marsh Sandpiper
    173 青脚鹬 Tringa nebularia Greenshank
    174 白腰草鹬 Tringa ochropus Green Sandpiper
    175 林鹬 Tringa glareola Wood Sandpiper
    176 小青脚鹬 Tring a guttifer Armstrong's Sandpiper
    177 小黄脚鹬 Tringa flavipes Lesser Yellowlegs
    178 灰鹬 Tringa incana Grey Sandpiper
    179 矶鹬 Tringa hypoleucos Common Sandpiper
    180 灰尾漂鹬 Heteroscelus brevipes Grey-rumped Sandpiper
    181 漂鹬 Heteroscelus incanus Gery Sandpiper
    182 翘嘴鹬 Xenus cinereus Terek Sandpiper
    183 翻石鹬 Arenaria interpres Turnstone
    184 长嘴鹬 Limnodromus scolopaceus Long-billed Dowitcher
    185 半蹼鹬 Limnodromus semipalmatus Snipe-billed Godwit
    186 孤沙锥 Gallinago solitaria Solitary Snipe
    187 澳南沙锥 Gallinago hardwickii Latham's Snipe
    188 林沙锥 Gallinago nemoricola Wood Snipe  
    189 针尾沙锥 Gallinago stenura Pintail Snipe
    190 大沙锥 Gallinago megala Swinhoe's Snipe
    191 扇尾沙锥 Gallinago gallinago Fantail Snipe
    192 丘鹬 Scolopax rusticola Woodcock
    193 姬鹬 Lymnocryptes minimus Jack Snipe
    194 红腹滨鹬 Calidris canutus Red Knot
    195 大滨鹬 Calidris tenuirostris Great Knot
    196 红胸滨鹬 Calidris ruficollis Red-necked Stint
    197 西方滨鹬 Calidris mauri Western Sandpiper
    198 长趾滨鹬 Calidris subminuta Long-toed Stint
    199 小滨鹬 Calidris minuta Little Stint
    200 乌脚滨鹬 Calidris temminckii Temminck's Stint
    201 尖尾滨鹬 Calidris acuminata Sharp-tailed Stint
    202 岩滨鹬 Calidris ptilocnemis Rock Sand-piper
    203 黑腹滨鹬 Calidris alpina Dunlin
    204 弯嘴滨鹬 Calidris ferruginea Curlew Stint
    205 斑胸滨鹬 Calidris melanotos Pectoral Sandpiper
    206 三趾滨鹬 Crocethia alba Sanderling
    207 勺嘴鹬 Eurynorhynchus pygmeus Spoon-billedSandpiper
    208 阔嘴鹬 Limicola falcinellus Broad-billed Sandpiper
    209 高跷鹬 Micropalama himantopus Stilt Sandpiper
    210 黄胸鹬 Tryngites subruficillis Buff-breastedSandpiper
    211 流苏鹬 Philomachus pugnax Ruff
    反嘴鹬科 Recurvirostridae (3)  
    212 鹮嘴鹬 Ibidorhyncha struthersii Ibis-bill
    213 黑翅长脚鹬 Himantopus himantopus Black-winged Stint
    214 反嘴鹬 Recurvirostra avosetta Pied Avocet
    瓣蹼鹬科Phalaropodidae (2)
    215 红颈瓣蹼鹬 Phalaropus lobatus Red-necked Phalarope
    216 灰瓣蹼鹬 Phalaropus fulicarius Grey Phalarope
    石鸻科Burhinidae (2)
    217 大石鸻 Esacus magnirostris Great Stone Plover
    218 石鸻 Burhinus oedicnemus Stone Curlew
    燕鸻科 Glareolidae (2)
    219 普通燕鸻 Glareola maldivarum Oriental Pratincole
    220 灰燕鸻 Glareola lactea Small Pratincole
    鸥形目LARIFORMES
    贼鸥科 Stercorariidae (4)
    221 中贼鸥 Stercorarius pomarinus Pomatorhine Skua
    222 大贼鸥 Catharacta skua Great Skua
    223 短尾贼鸥 Stercorarius parasiticus Short-tailed Skua
    224 长尾贼鸥 Stercorarius longicaudus Long-tailed Skua
    鸥科 Laridae (33)
    225 黑尾鸥 Larus crassirostris Black-tailed Gull
    226 海鸥 Larus canus Common Gull
    227 银鸥 Larus argentatus Herring Gull
    228 灰背鸥 Larus schistisagus Slaty-backed Gull
    229 灰翅鸥 Larus glaucescens Glaucous-winged Gull
    230 北极鸥 Larus hyperboreus Glaucous Gull
    231 渔鸥 Larus ichthyaetus Great Black-headed Gull
    232 遗鸥 Larus relictus Relict Gull
    233 红嘴鸥 Larus ridibundus Black-headed Gull
    234 棕头鸥 Larus brunnicephalus Brown-headed Gull
    235 细嘴鸥 Larus genei Slender-billed Gull
    236 小鸥 Larus minutus Little Gull
    237 黑嘴鸥 Larus saundersi Saunder's Gull
    238 三趾鸥 Rissa tridactyla Blacked-leggedKittiwake
    239 楔尾鸥 Rhodostethia rosea Wedge-tailed Gull
    240 须浮鸥 Chlidonias hybrida Whiskered Tern
    241 白翅浮鸥 Chlidonias leucoptera White-winged Black Tern
    242 黑浮鸥 Chlidonias niger Black Tern
    243 鸥嘴噪鸥 Gelochelidon nilotica Gull-billed Tern
    244 红嘴巨鸥 Hydroprogne caspia Caspian Tern
    245 黄嘴河燕鸥 Sterna aurantia River Tern
    246 普通燕鸥 Sterna hirundo Common Tern
    247 粉红燕鸥 Sterna dougallii Roseate Tern
    248 黑枕燕鸥 Sterna sumatrana Black-naped Tern
    249 黑腹燕鸥 Sterna melanogaster Black-bellied Tern
    250 褐翅燕鸥 Sterna anaethetus Brown-winged Tern
    251 乌燕鸥 Sterna fuscata Sooty Tern
    252 白额燕鸥 Sterna albifrons Little Tern
    253 大凤头燕鸥 Thalasseus bergii Large Crested Tern
    254 小凤头燕鸥 Thalasseus bengalensis Little Crested Tern
    255 黑嘴端凤头燕鸥 Thalasseus bernsteini Chinese Lesser Crested Tern
    256 白顶黑燕鸥 Anous stolidus Common Noddy
    257 白燕鸥 Gygis alba White Tern
    剪嘴鸥科Rynchopidae (1)
    258 剪嘴鸥 Rhynchops albicollis Indian Skimmer
    海雀科Alcidae(4)
    259 扁嘴海雀 Synthiboramphus antiquus Ancient Murrelet
    260 斑海雀 Brachyramphus marmoratus Marbled Murrelet
    261 角嘴海雀 Cerorhinca monocerata Hornbilled Auklet
    262 冠海雀 Synthliboraphus antiqus Crested Murrelet
    鴞形目STRIGIFORMES
    鸱鴞科 Strigidae(3)
    263 毛腿渔鴞 Ketupa blakistoni Blackiston's Fish Owl
    264 褐渔鴞 Ketupa zeylonensis Brown Fish Owl
    265 黄脚渔鴞 Ketupa flavipes Tawny Fish Owl
    佛法僧目CORACIIFORMES
    翠鸟科 Aleedinidae(6)
    266 冠鱼狗 Ceryle lugubrus Crested PiedKingfisher
    267 斑鱼狗 Ceryle rudis Lesser Pied Kingfisher
    268 普通翠鸟 Alcedo atthis Common Kingfisher
    269 赤翡翠 Halcyon coromanda Ruddy Kingfisher
    270 白胸翡翠 Halcyon smyrnensis White-breasted Kingfisher
    271 篮翡翠 Halcyon pileata Black-capped Kingfisher
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